No. 1838 squadron officially formed in the United States at US Naval Air Station
Brunswick, on October 1st 1943 as a single seater fighter squadron under the command of Lt. Cdr (A) F. B. P. Sanderson RNVR. Initial equipment was 10 Corsair Is.
After familiarisation with the aircraft and equipment the squadron began training in earnest to prepare for active service. Training included navigation exercises, low flying, formation flying and combat tactics. Training progressed well, with only four recorded flying incidents; In October Sub-Lt W. J. R. Christie RNVR, flying in Corsair JT164 had to ditch his aircraft in the sea when it ran out of fuel after completing a formation flight exercise on the 22n and Sub-Lt L I. L. Apted RNVR, had to make a forced landing in a river after the engine of his Corsair, JT140, failed in flight on the 29th. On November 28th the squadron’s Commanding Officer Lt. Cdr F. P. B. Sanderson RNVR, in Corsair JT187, caught a wingtip on a pile of snow, swung off the runway and ran into deep snow, and on December 17th Sub-Lt E. J. Baxter RNZNVR, in Corsair JT179, braked on landing and swung to port, he opened up the throttle in an attempt to clear a snow bank, but crashed in rough ground on the airfield.
The pilots of 1838 squadron at USNAS Brunswick.
At the start of the New Year the Corsair Is were withdrawn Corsair IIs were issued in preparation for the squadron departing for the UK. The squadron flew to
USNAS Norfolk to carry out a day of Deck Landing Practice (DLP)
in Chesapeake Bay on January 8th 1944 (Possibly on
HMS BEGUM or
USS CHARGER). 1838 and their sister squadron
1837 were to make the voyage to the UK on the escort carrier
HMS BEGUM which was making her maiden Atlantic crossing after leaving her builders yard. On completion of their DLP sorties their aircraft were taxied through the streets of Norfolk, wings folded, to the dock side for loading one evening [ 1 ]
BEGUM sailed from Norfolk on the afternoon of January 14th, and on arrival at New York on the 16th was moored at the 56th street pier, Brooklyn where she was taken in hand by the Bethlehem Steel company for voyage repairs; the work was completed on the following day. She next embarked more stores and passengers for the crossing to the UK. Also alongside in Brooklyn was the CVE
HMS TRUMPETER, she was making her third trip in the ferry role; both carriers left New York on January 18th to join convoy UT.7 for Liverpool.
BEGUM was carrying 60 aircraft (36 Corsair and 24 Avenger) 36 of which were lashed on the flight deck, the squadron aircraft were stowed in the hangar deck as these were to be unloaded last. She had 68 tons of stores and 194 service and 45 civilian passengers including a party of school children and their mothers who had been evacuated to Canada earlier in the war and were now returning home to the UK.
The Atlantic crossing was without incident and
TRUMPETER Split from the convoy off Oversay Island, Scotland on Friday January 28th and anchored in Liverpool Bay the following day. The passengers, stores and 36 airframes were disembarked during the weekend, leaving only the aircraft of the two operational squadrons on board.
BEGUM sailed for the Clyde on Monday January 31st and anchored in Rothesay Bay on February 1st. While on route to Rothesay Bay
1837 & 1838 squadrons disembarked, both flew off the ship, 1838 to
RNAS Machrihanish on the 31st and
Lancashire. 1838 moved to
RNAS Burscough the following day.
After a brief stay at Burscough, both squadrons took leave before embarking for Ceylon in HMS ATHELING on February 26th 1944. They disembarked to the R.N. Air Section at R.A.F. Minneriya on April 13th.
The squadron was to spend the next three months conducting flying training in Ceylon, embarking briefly in the Maintenance Carrier
UNICORN on June 6th for two days of Deck Landing Training (DLT). There were two flying incidents during this time; on April 21st Sub-Lt N. A. Street flying Corsair JT223 bounced on landing at
Minneriya and his port wing dropped
causing the aircraft to swing off the runway, the aircraft ended on
its nose. On June 6th the C.O. was the only pilot to have a crash on deck during the DLT period, although his aircraft, Corsair JT252, caught a wire he was too far off centre and the port undercarriage went over the side.
Towards the end of July 1944 1838 was embarked in the Fleet Carrier VICTORIOUS for a strike against targets at Sabang, Sumatra, in Operation CRIMSON. This operation involved a naval bombardment and aerial strikes on Japanese airfields in the Indonesian cities of Sabang, Lhoknga and Kutaraja on the Island of Sumatra with carrier aircraft suppressing the airfields and providing air cover for the bombarding force. The force comprised of the Carriers VICTORIOUS and ILLUSTRIOUS, battleships QUEEN ELIZABETH, VALIANT, RENOWN, and the French battleship RICHELIEU, Cruisers CEYLON, CUMBERLAND, GAMBIA, NIGERIA, PHOEBE, and TROMP, with Destroyers QUALITY, QUICKMATCH, QUILLIAM, RACEHORSE, RAIDER, RAPID, RELENTLESS, ROCKET, ROEBUCK, and ROTHERHAM, supported by submarines TEMPLAR and TANTALUS. 1838 embarked on July 23rd when the force sailed from Trincomalee.
VICTORIOUS embarked 39 Corsair fighters, 14 each from
(47th Naval Fighter Wing) and 11 aircraft of 1838 squadron . ILLUSTRIOUS
embarked a record 57 aircraft for this strike; 15 Barracudas, 9 from 810 squadron and 6 from 847, with 42 Corsairs (14 each) from
1833, (15th Naval Fighter Wing) and 1837 squadron.
The carriers launched their first strike aircraft from a position 35 miles north of Sabang before dawn, at 05:30 on the morning of July 25th. ILLUSTRIOUS launched 18 Corsairs, while VICTORIOUS sent up 16. Eight from each carrier was tasked with attacking Sabang airfield (RAMROD). Two from
ILLUSTRIOUS were sent to attack a radar/radio station. The remainder were to form a CAP over the bombardment ships.
The launch had been planned for pre-dawn to allow the strike sorties to approach out of the dawn, but this was delayed because the fight deck parties struggled to range the aircraft in the darkness. Launch was 5 minutes late and further delay came when the strike groups attempted to assemble before setting off for the coast. 1838 squadron’s aircraft set out on the wrong course, and struggled to locate the target in the darkness using old maps. Errors in the planning soon became apparent; it was still dark as the RAMROD aircraft struck at 06:00 and straffed their targets, the airfields of Sabang, Lho Nga and Kotaraj; they faced intense anti-aircraft fire and targets were difficult to identify in the pre-dawn light. Nevertheless, two Japanese aircraft were claimed destroyed, and two damaged, on the ground. One damaged Corsair limped over the coast and out to sea where the pilot was rescued.
Aircraft then acted as bombardment spotters for the Battleships which commenced fire at 0655. Two small ships were sunk, oil facilities were set alight and harbour infrastructure destroyed. The force withdrew at 09:30, and two Japanese aircraft tried to shadow, but both were intercepted and shot down. Four of ILLUSTRIOUS' 1833 squadron Corsairs, JT207, JT282, JT284, and JT297 also claimed a Ki-21 'Sally' shot down into the sea and exploded 20 miles West of Sabang, at 09:30. Later that afternoon a group of 10 A6M ‘Zero’ or Ki-43 ‘Oscar’ fighters was detected on radar approaching the Force, 50 miles out. They were engaged by a group of 13 Corsairs. Sub-Lt F. B. Hoffer RNZNVR and Sub-Lt F. G. L. Morgan RCNVR, from 1838, each shot down one ‘Zero’. Two others were damaged in the exchange. Two of 1837s’ aircraft were involved in the aerial combat, both being flown by pilots from 1830 squadron, Lt P. S. Cole in ’7F’ engaged 2 A6Ms at 1805, 1 pulled up in steep climb and was lost to view, the other crashed into the sea with its tail missing, Sub-Lt H. D. Whelpton in ‘7K’ claimed an A6M shot down into the sea at 18:15. The Force arrived back at Ceylon on the 27th and 1838 flew ashore to RNAS Colombo Racecourse. This short operation was the squadron’s only combat operation, earning them the Battle Honour ‘Sabang’.
On August 25th 1944, 1838 squadron embarked in
for passage to Cape Town, South Africa. On arrival there on September 12th the squadron disembarked to
RNAS Wingfield; it was officially disbanded the following day. Its aircraft and personnel were absorbed by
1833 Squadrons to enlarge the 15th Naval Fighter Wing.
Plans were outlined to re-form 1838 with 15 Corsairs in November 1945 as part of a spare Illustrious -class 15th Carrier Air Group (1832 and 1838 Corsair, and 852 Avenger squadrons) this was cancelled after VJ-Day.
No.1837 reformed as a single seater fighter squadron on July 1st 1945 at
RNAS Eglinton, Lt. Cdr (A) R. Tebble RNVR, in command. They were equipped with 22 Corsair Ils, 18 of these were inherited from No.1835 Squadron which was re-equipping with Mk. IVs. 1837 was earmarked for the 4th Carrier Air Group in HMS ILLUSTRIOUS with the British Pacific Fleet.
Ten days after the squadron formed at
Eglinton one of its pilots had a spectacular crash on landing; Sub-Lt A. M. Black RNVR, in Corsair JS496 (‘H’) the aircraft overshot, cartwheeled on its port wingtip, tearing off the engine and propeller. The pilot was OK. The squadron moved to
RNAS Nutts Corner on July 31st 1945 to continue training.
Tragedy struck on August 8th when Sub-Lt I MacAllister was killed shortly after take-off from
Nutts Corner; flying in Corsair JS593, ('R'), he attempted to return to the station after smoke began pouring from the engine but the aircraft dove into the ground and burst into flames, South West of Nutts Corner, 1mile South West of Dundrod. On the 9th Sub-Lt N. E. Phillips RNVR, bounced landing on in JSS40 and the Port wing tip struck the ground. Lt A. W. Watson RNVR made a forced landing at Mullaghmore on August 13th after his aircraft, JS812, developed engine trouble.
With the end of hostilities on August 15th 1945 the squadron was no longer required, and it disbanded at Nutts Corner on August 18th, its aircraft going to No.1 Naval Air Fighter School at Yeovilton.
Content revised: 31 December 2023
Corsair Mk. I Oct 43 - Jan 44
Corsair Mk. II
JJan - Sep 44
Lt. Cdr (A) F. B .P. Sanderson RNVR 1 Oct 1943
Lt. Cdr (A) M.S. Godson RN
28 Jun 1944
Squadron disbanded 13 Sep 1944
Aircrew and squadron personnel
Press F5 to refresh the page after posting your comment or to hide the form
The date of January 19th is given for the 1837 & 1838 squadrons embarking in BEGUM (Sturtivant, R & Balance, T., (1994)) but this must be an error - the ship had sailed from New York in convoy UT.7 on the 18th. The ship was also carrying 36 American aircraft as a ferry load which would have been embarked at Norfolk Naval Operating Base. Usual practice was to load the squadron aircraft first and to stow them in the hangar, then load the preserved airframes for delivery as deck cargo. On arrival at New York BEGUM was carrying 60 aircraft (24 squadron Corsairs, plus 12 Corsairs and 24 Avengers as deck cargo). It is therefore assumed that the date of loading was sometime between February 9th and 13th 1944.Close
1837 squadron is listed as embarking in VICTORIOUS (Sturtivant, R & Balance, T., (1994)) and individual aircraft records reflect participation in operation BANQUET (Sturtivant, R. & Burrows, M. (1995)). In other commentaries on this operation (Brown, D. (1974)), 1837 is not mentioned and the Air Group is recorded as totalling 49 aircraft, 28 Corsairs (1834 & 1836) and 21 Barracudas (822). This is obviously an error, 822 did not embark in VICTORIOUS until September 11th for operation LIGHT (Sturtivant, R & Balance, T., (1994)). The correct Air Group should read 831 (21 Barracudas), 1834, 1836 & 1837 (Corsairs, number embarked unknown, but less than maximum strength as the carrier could not accommodate 42 in addition to the 21 Barracudas).Close