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838 (1) May 42 - August 43
 

Formation and work-up

The nucleus of No.838 Squadron assembled at RNAS Eastleigh, Hampshire, on April 10th 1942, under the command of Lt. Cdr J.R.C. Callandar RN and sailed in the troopship BANFORA for Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they disembarked to the RN Air Section at Royal Canadian Air Force statoion Dartmouth on May 15th. The squadron officially formed on this date as a Torpedo Bomber Reconnaissance squadron for service in an escort carrier with four Swordfish I aircraft issued from the Dartmouth storage section. The next two and a half months were spent working-up, during this period two of the original four aircraft were lost, both in June; on the 2nd an unidentified Swordfish is recorded as wrecked, on the 21st the CO made a forced landing in the sea in Swordfish V4317.


The squadron was allocated for service in HMS ATTACKER, the first 'Bogue' class escort carrier to be supplied under the Lend-Lease agreement; she was completing her fitting out at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo California and was expected to be commissioned by the start of October 1932. The squadron was to join her at San Francisco to work-up with the ship; plans were made to fly cross-country, departing from Dartmouth early in the morning on July 30th. The CO plus three pilots, 1 navigator and what maintenance personnel could be carried as passengers set of on a seven and a half day journey which was undertaken in 15 stages:

 

Halifax to Bangor, Maine; Bangor to Montreal; Montreal to Kingston, Ontario (overnight stay); Kingston to Selfridge Field, Detroit; Detroit to Battle Creek, Michigan; Michigan to Chicago (overnight stay); Chicago to Des Moines (got lost landed at Moline, Illinois); Moline to Omaha (overnight stay,); Omaha to North Platte, Nebraska; North Platte to Cheyenne, Wyoming; Cheyenne to Rock Springs, Wyoming; Rock Springs to Salt Lake City, Utah (overnight stay,); Salt Lake City to Elko, Nevada: Elko to Reno, Nevada (overnight stay,); Reno to Alameda, San Francisco. A total of thirty-five and a half hours flying time from Halifax. 

 

 

H.M.S. ATTACKER December 1942 - April 1943

The four aircraft landed at USNAS Alameda Island on August 6th 1942 and began preparations for joining the ship. The remainder of the squadron personnel arrived later by train. Their carrier, US designation ACV- 7 was delivered to the US Navy and commissioned as USS BARNES on September 30th 1942; she was decommissioned and transferred to the Royal Navy on the same day, commissioning as HMS ATTACKER.


 

3 of the 4 Swordfish aircraft of 838 naval air squadron operating from USNAS Alemeda Island, flying over San Francisco.  Photo courtesy of Dan Shumaker

Swordfish V4387  '2C' its undercarriage torn off by the crash barrier after she missed all the arrestor wires while landing on. See HMS ATTACKER gallery for a series of four images  of this landing. Photo courtesy of David Hamilton

 

The ship began sea and flying trials off San Francisco on November 12th, embarking 838 squadron aircraft from USNAS Alemeda Island on December 12th. On completion of her trials and shake down she sailed from San Francisco for Balboa on December 12th and passed through the Panama Canal to arrive at Cristobal on December 22nd 1942. From Cristobal she headed for the US Naval operating Base at Norfolk, Virginia. On arrival 838 squadron was disembarked to USNAS Quonset Point on January 1st 1943. During January and February 1943 ATTACKER underwent defect rectification and the installation of equipment in Norfolk, as well as spending a period of flying training in Chesapeake Bay with Martlet fighters from 882, 896 and 898 squadrons and Swordfish from 838 and 840 squadrons which were working up at USNAS Quonset Point.

On March 2nd 838 squadron re-embarked together with a further 6 Swordfish of 840 squadron, both flying out from USNAS Quonset Point, to provide air cover for an eastbound convoy from Curacao. The ship called at Kingston Jamaica on route and two replacement Swordfish (V4718 & W3967) were embarked from the storage section at RNAS Palisadoes. At least one aircraft suffered significant damage while flying from the ship, V4387 ('2C') lost its undercarriage when it missed all the arrestor wires and was stopped by the barrier; date and location are unknown. ATTACKER sailed from Willemstad, Curacao with convoy CU 01 on March 20th as part of the escort force and provided anti-submarine cover for the Atlantic crossing. She detached from the convoy on reaching the safety of UK waters and anchored on the Clyde on April 1st. She sailed for Liverpool the following day, both 838 and 840 squadrons disembarked, flying ashore to RNAS Machrihanish.

Merchant Aircraft Carrier (MAC) service April - August 1943

 At RNAS Machrihanish the squadron was reallocated for MAC-ship service; the Mk 1 Swordfish were withdrawn and new Mk 11 machines were received. On June 7th Lt. (A) R.G Large RNVR assumed command, the squadron  moved to RNAS Maydown, Northern Ireland on June 13th. The pilots and aircraft flew out to the training carrier HMS ARGUS on July 9th for a day of DLT, before they embarked in the British built escort carrier HMS ACTIVITY on July 18th for a work up and intensive period of DLT before disembarking to  RNAS Belfast on the 30th.

The squadron embarked in the MAC-ship MV RAPANA on August 2nd for trials but owing to a change of policy, the squadron merged into No. 836 Squadron on August 13th 1943  as 'L' Flight. [836 squadron were responsible for all MAC ship flights and was based at RNAS Maydown.]

 

Swordfish coming into to land on a Rapana class merchant aircraft carrier after a patrol escorting an Atlantic convoy. The other three aircraft are parked in the bow, there was no hangar on these makeshift carriers. Photo Ref:VR997.011.2 courtesy of CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum

 

838 (2) November 43 - February 45

 

Formation and work-up

On 1 November 1943, No.838 reformed at RNAS Belfast from part of No.818 Squadron as a torpedo bomber reconnaissance squadron with 4 Swordfish Ils, Lt. Cdr (A) J.M. Brown DSC RNVR in command. On December 17th they embarked in HMS NAIRANA for working up in the Clyde, disembarking to RNAS Dunino on January 16th J 1944. A further move was made to RNAS Inskip on February 6th where it increased to 9 aircraft on the 14th. They moved again to RNAS Machrihanish on March 18th, and increased to 12 aircraft, a mix of ASV Mk.XI equipped Swordfish Ils and Ills, on April 1st.


Operations with  RAF Coastal Command

On April 20th 1944 No. 838 moved south to join No. 156 GR Wing, RAF Coastal Command at RAF Station Harrowbeer for anti-submarine operations in the English Channel during the build-up to the Normandy invasion.

On the night of April 30th 1944 a flight of three aircraft were tasked with making an RP strike on a beached German Elbing-class destroyer (probably T-27) at Vierge, Brittany [1]. Swordfish NE906 ('F') crewed by Sub- Lt ILR Wilson RNZNVR, Sub- Lt ET Clark RNVR & P.O. AC Rockley, NE923 ('G'), crewed by Sub- Lt LF Hayward RNZNVR, Sub- Lt DJ Hanson RNVR & Ldg Airman BL Rowntree, and NE946 ('K') crewed by Sub- Lt SF Such RNVR, Lt JB Cook RNVR & P.O. RC Grapes took off to make the strike. The beached German destroyer was not defenceless however, its anti-aircraft weapons shot down NE906 and NE923, both crashed in France, while Swordfish NE946 was hit by fire from coastal AA batteries and ditched in the sea; all nine crew were killed. It transpired that aircraft from 838 were not meant to undertake this operation; an RAF Typhoon squadron was the intended unit but orders were sent to 838 instead.

Once the invasion bridgehead had been established he squadron withdrew to Northern Ireland; calling at RNAS Worthy Down on August 8th and then RAF Long Kesh on the 9th to regroup. Lt. Cdr P. Snow RN assumed command on August 19th 1944 and the squadron arrived at RNAS Maydown on the 27th.

In September they re-joined Coastal Command in Scotland, flying to RAF Long Kesh on the 10th on route to RAF Benbecula where they arrived on the 12th. Further moves were made to RAF Dallachy on the 28th, and RAF Fraserburgh on October 22nd. A fighter flight was formed at RNAS Eglinton on October 27th equipped with four Wildcat Vls, but this was transferred to No.856 Squadron at the end of November. No. 838 moved for a final time to RAF Thorney Island on November 15th 1944,;theey disbanded there on February 3rd 1945.

 

 



Notes:

[1] T27 ran aground, en route to L'Aber Vrac'h for repairs after an action against Force 26 on the night of 28/29 April 1944. She was finally destroyed by British MTBs on 6 May after several unsuccessful air attacks.  See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elbing-class_torpedo_boat

 

Content revised: 01 December 2016

 

Sources used in compiling this account:

Sturtivant, R. & Burrows, M. (1995)'Fleet Air Arm Aircraft 1939 to 1945' Tonbridge Wells, Air Britain (Historians)

Sturtivant, R & Balance, T., (1994)'Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm' Tonbridge Wells, Air Britain (Historians)

British officers (including Commonwealth officers serving in British units) Part of WWII Unit Histories and Officers web site.

On a String and a prayer by David Foxx article about the squadron's cross-country flight in August 1942.

Thanks to Mr. Antony Wiles for information about the incident of April 30th/May 1st 1944; his Great Uncle, Sub Lt Lesley Frank Hayward RNZNVR was the pilot of Swordfish NE923 ('G'),

 

 

 

 

 

 

No badge issued

 

 

Battle Honours

 

Atlantic 1943
Normandy 1944

 

Aircraft Types

 

Swordfish I May 42 -Apr 43

Swordfish II Apr 1943 - Aug 43
Swordfish IINov 1943 - Feb 45

Swordfish III May 44 - Feb 45

Wildcat VI Oct 44 - Nov 44

 

Commanding Officers

 

Lt. Cdr J.R.C. Callandar RN 15 May 42

Lt. (A) R.G. Large RNVR 7 Jun 43

Squadron disbanded 13 Aug 43

 

Lt. Cdr (A) J.M. Brown DSC RNVR 1 Nov 43

Lt. Cdr P. Snow RN 19 Aug 1944

Squadron disbanded 03 Feb 1945

 

 

Aircrew and Squadron Personnel

 

Click Here

 

 

 

 

 © 2016 Tony Drury www.royalnavyresearcharchive.org.uk


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